To better understand issues regarding our transportation system in the Philippines and elsewhere, I am showing two diagrams that both describe hierarchies of transport modes. The figures illustrate a concept much like our concept of the food pyramid where many if not most could easily understand in terms of what we need more of and less of in terms of proper nutrition. Transpose this concept to transport and we can understand that the most basic mode of transport is and should be on top of an inverted triangle, which represents which modes re to be prioritized over the others. The figure can also be used to symbolize mode shares. In terms of both priority and mode share, walking is the most dominant as we all walk. As such, it is only logical that facilities be provided for everyone to be able to walk safely and efficiently. These facilities include sidewalks, overpasses and underpasses that would encourage walking over other modes (especially the motorized ones). Walking is the most equitable and sustainable among transport modes and is definitely the healthiest.
For public transportation, another diagram may be constructed to show which modes can carry more people. Though the following figure is somewhat customized for Philippine public transport, it does not include multicabs, FX/AUVs, van-type services, and other paratransit modes (e.g., habal-habal, kuliglig, etc.) that are found throughout the country. There should be similar hierarchies in our ASEAN neighbor countries as they also have their indigenous modes like the tuktuks and samlors of Thailand.
Of course, each mode of transport is suitable for different trips with non-motorized public transport (particularly the 3-wheeler pedicabs, trisikad or padyak) being most appropriate for short distance trips though such trips can also be covered by walking. Jeepneys and multicabs are suitable for medium distance travel (~4 to 10 kilomemeters) where ridership is not yet viable for buses but which would have been serviced by too many tricycles. There is a reason from the perspectives of safety and efficiency why pedicabs and tricycles are not encouraged along national roads and jeepneys are not supposed to be plying routes along EDSA and C5.
Going up the hierarchy would have cost implications and rail transit is the most expensive mode in terms of capitalization, operations and maintenance. Of course, there are different type of rail transport services that include light rail to the long distance heavy rail commuter and regional services. As such, these systems require investment as well as foresight for the eventuality of a large, populous urban area ultimately requiring rail transport to carry so many passengers over longer distances. Rail alone would probably be insufficient so it needs to be complemented by bus and perhaps jeepneys as well. The emergence of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) has provided city and transport planners with a flexible option bridging rail and bus transport in terms of cost and passenger capacities and are now being considered as immediate solutions for travel demand and public transport needs in major cities.
Merry Christmas to all!
In this time of celebrations and gatherings among families and friends, may I just remind you – Don’t Drink and Drive! Have a designated driver or take public transportation. Keep our roads safe and make sure there are no tragedies that will make this an unhappy time for you, your kin, your friends and other road users.
Arriving at Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA), one has several options for travel between the airport and Hong Kong. The taxi is usually an expensive option unless you are with a group and sharing the fare. The most practical option is to take the Airport Express train, which also provides a free shuttle service from its stations at Kowloon and Hong Kong.
Following are a few photos I was able to take of the airport express trip from HKIA to Kowloon Station. I must admit that as we were quite in a hurry to get to our hotels, I was only able to take a few photos between HKIA and Kowloon. I promised to myself to make up for this on my return to the airport on the way back home.
HKIA Airport Express shuttle bus counter at Kowloon Station – there are several routes going around Kowloon. One may choose the shuttle according to his/her hotel and there are information to guide the traveler. Shuttle staff are very helpful in case the traveler has doubts about the info he/she has.
Inside the shuttle bus – there’s space for luggage so travelers don’t have to take their luggage with them to their seats. There’s only the driver to help travelers with their luggage but he does well in arranging luggage so people would have enough space.
More about the Airport Express later…
Writing about the Hong Kong International Airport in a previous post, a friend pointed out that I needed to explore the airport to see the other terminals and its amenities. Having used Changi so frequently the past 2 years, I had been quite partial towards Singapore’s airport. And so I made sure I had the time to go around HKIA, particularly upon my return trip to Manila. Following are some photos taken upon our arrival at the airport early this December.
Another look at the arrival area at HKIA showing travelers congregating with their baggage in tow. Around them are shops, visitor information/tourism counters, restaurants and foreign currency exchange counters.
Directions to the HK Airport Express Trains. The trains are the more inexpensive options to go to Hong Kong from the airport, which is on a separate island. Taking the train to either Kowloon or Hong Kong Station, one may take the free shuttle bus services going around the districts with stopovers at most major hotels.
More on HKIA and the Airport Express later…
Driving home after our office’s Christmas Party, I couldn’t help but notice the difference in illuminations between sections of Marcos Highway from Santolan in Pasig City until Masinag in Antipolo City. The stretch from Santolan until Sta. Lucia Mall is relatively dark with the only light coming from vehicles or the establishments along the roadside. The vicinity of the LRT 2 Santolan Station benefits from the lighting of the elevated station, the pedestrian overpass and the medium-rise residential development nearby. It is actually quite dark right after the LRT 2 Station where vehicles stand along the roadside waiting for passengers coming out of the trains terminating at station. Some sections benefit from the presence of 24-hour gas stations and the Robinson’s and Sta. Lucia Malls near the intersection with Imelda Avenue. But for most sections, it is quite dark, which tends to discourage walking and cycling along the highway. The photo below that I quickly took with my phone pretty much describes the lighting conditions along Marcos Highway along a section that’s supposed to be a shared responsibility among the Cities of Pasig and Marikina. There are lamp posts along both sides of the road, courtesy of the rehabilitation works for Marcos Highway that was completed earlier this year. But all seem to be switched off.
Meanwhile, quite noticeable is the illuminated stretch from Imelda Avenue to Masinag, where Marcos Highway intersects with Sumulong Highway. Lights from the lamp posts along both sides of the highway are all switched on, giving travelers (motorists, pedestrians and cyclists) the benefit of a well-lighted facility through which they could travel safely, at least from the perspective of illumination. One can actually turn off his headlights (though I don’t recommend it) and you won’t really notice the difference because of the lights from the lamp posts. The following photo is another quick shot taken right after the U-turn slot across from the Burger King branch along the highway. The section is within the limits of the Municipality of Cainta and further on, the City of Antipolo, both in Rizal Province and technically outside Metro Manila.
It has already been established that poorly lighted roads lead to road crashes even as it has been established that nighttime crash rates are higher than daytime rates (AASHTO, 2003). There is also evidence that fixed-source lighting can reduce the incidence of crashes particularly along urban streets where there are many intersections and major arterials such as Marcos Highway. In the Philippine setting, illumination also enhances safety and security for pedestrians and cyclists and would definitely encourage the development of a culture of walking. In the case of Marcos Highway, there are already pedestrian and cycling lanes separate from the carriageway. However, these are poorly illuminated along significant sections such as the Santolan to Imelda sections where perhaps people can have the option to walk to and from the LRT station. They are discouraged though because of the risks associated with dark places and so end up waiting for a jeepney ride instead of walking what is actually an acceptable (walkable) distance. Perhaps Pasig and Marikina, two cities currently advocating walking and cycling, should look into this issue in coordination with the DPWH, which has jurisdiction over the national highway. If Rizal’s Antipolo and Cainta can do it, I don’t see why Marikina and Pasig can’t.
I got my first look at a road section that’s part of what is supposed to be Circumferential Road 6. C-6 would probably be the last of the circumferential roads to be conceptualized and, sometime in the far future, to be completed. It is not mentioned in the original plan for Manila that had major roads arranged in what is called a “wheel and spoke” layout that the architect Daniel Burnham was supposed to have applied in planning Manila. Many years later and the transformation of the area into a metropolis comprised of many cities that is now called Metro Manila (some already consider the area a megalopolis and use the term Mega Manila to include cities and municipalities in adjacent provinces), there are 10 radial roads (R-1 to R-10) and 6 circumferential roads (C-1 to C-6).
An old map showing one of the possible alignments of C-6 – the current alignment being considered will be closer to the the coast of Laguna de Bay and will be to the east and north of the La Mesa reservoir rather than to the south and west of the latter.
While most of these have practically been completed with only a few segments here and there that need to be constructed or connected like C-5’s, C-6 is somewhat a latecomer whose alignment, while laid out on paper and mentioned in several plans and reports, is still being discussed considering its location in the fringes of Metro Manila. In fact, much of it will probably be constructed outside Metro Manila and not on the most favorable of terrains. There are even proposals for sections of C-6 to be elevated and tolled. Toll fees would probably make sense if the intention is to have a circumferential expressway with limited access (ramps and interchanges). Following are photos taken from Seagull Avenue to Gen. Santos Avenue in Taguig City.
Noticeable along the roadside are concrete barriers similar to those found along highways in Central Luzon that are in areas prone to flooding. Flood waters are allowed to go through or across the section and the barriers keep large debris away from the roads while also keeping vehicles from “drifting” out of the highway.
Pavement markings finally appear along C-6. While many motorists don’t seem to mind their absence, they are actually important from the perspective of road safety as they serve to guide motorists along the road, particularly to stay within their lanes.
Tricycles, like the one in the photo don’t seem to be in significant numbers along C-6. This is probably because there are few developments along the road. Most developments are along M.L. Quezon Ave., which is an old road that stretches along parallel to the Laguna de Bay coast.
There are several pumping stations located along C-6 and these are used mainly for flood control (i.e., pumping water from the waterways in Taguig to the Laguna de Bay, which is just across the road). Laguna de Bay is on the other side of the dike along the left of the highway in the photo.
Power lines and street lamps along C-6. The lamps remind of similar designs in Cebu City and Pasay City. I’m not so sure about the aesthetics but they do seem a little flimsy for lamps located along the lakeshore. I do hope they illuminate well at night time and during inclement weather.
We noticed light traffic as we traveled along the entire length of road from Seagull Ave. to Gen. Santos Ave. Not so many people seem to be using the road despite it being a direct route from Rizal Province to Taguig. I have to try driving from Antipolo or Taytay and crossing the bridges at the mouth of the Pasig River and the Manggahan Floodway to Fort Bonifacio one of these days.
I mentioned that most lands along C-6 are undeveloped. This probably explains why traffic is quite light. At present there seems to be no direct/straightforward route connecting C-6 with C-5. In our case, we had to go through a maze of sorts between the two roads via Levi Mariano Ave., Gen. Luna Street, M.L. Quezon Avenue, and Seagull Avenue. The shortest path seems to be one through the DMCI developments in Taguig but roads there are private and presently for the exclusive use of their residents.
At present, C-6’s southern end is at its junction with M.L. Quezon Avenue in Bicutan, where C-6 turns and becomes Gen. Santos Avenue. Traveling through the road shown above will lead people to the Bicutan interchange of SLEX.
Saw this report from the GMA News YouTube channel that appeared in several of their news programs in Channels 7 and 11. It’s a good report as it is informative and the reporter did sufficient research on parking provisions stipulated in the Philippines’ National Building Code. I also found it interesting that one mall in Manila is already using an automated parking facility such as the one shown in the report. These multilevel parking facilities maximize the space required for slots and do not require much space for ramps or driveways. They are already found in cities in many other countries and should be considered in many other cities in the Philippines that are now facing parking problems.
Establishments such as shopping malls and other commercial areas are significant traffic generators. One aspect of trip generation is parking generation, and malls attract many people who tend to use private vehicles as their means for travel. This is especially true in Metro Manila and other major cities in the country where there are limited choices for public transport. For one, it is not so convenient nor comfortable for people taking public transport in Metro Manila. And so, a lot of people would bring their cars or motorcycles for shopping trips.
There is little information or data on parking generation characteristics in the country and it is unclear if the National Building Code’s provisions are sufficient. The NBC’s prescribes the number of minimum parking spaces for establishments but these are already being violated by many, which brings us to question the manner by which authorities approve designs for buildings given this requirement for parking.